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Technical SEO

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What is SEO?

What is SEO?

Simple question – long answer as it is a full time job


Technical SEO – Get your spanner’s out

Technical SEO refers to the optimisation of a website’s technical elements to improve its search engine visibility and user experience. It involves optimising the infrastructure, code, and server settings of a website to ensure it can be easily crawled and indexed by search engines, ranks well in search results, and provides a seamless experience for users. Technical SEO focuses on the following key areas:

Website Speed

Optimising page loading times to enhance user experience and improve search engine rankings. This includes compressing images, using browser caching, and minimising code.

Website speed is important for several reasons:

User experience

A slow-loading website frustrates users and can lead to higher bounce rates. Users expect websites to load quickly and will often abandon a site if it takes too long to load. A fast website provides a better user experience, keeping visitors engaged and increasing the likelihood of them staying on the site.

Search engine ranking

Website speed is one of the factors considered by search engines when determining search rankings. Search engines like Google prioritise fast-loading websites as they want to provide the best possible user experience to their users. A slow website may be penalised in search rankings, resulting in lower visibility and organic traffic.

Conversion rates

A fast website can have a positive impact on conversion rates. Research has shown that even a one-second delay in page load time can lead to lower conversion rates. Faster loading times can improve user engagement, increase trust, and encourage visitors to take desired actions like making a purchase, filling out a form, or signing up for a newsletter.

Mobile optimisation

With the increasing use of mobile devices, website speed becomes even more critical. Mobile users tend to have less reliable and slower internet connections compared to desktop users. Optimising website speed for mobile devices is essential to ensure a smooth and responsive experience for mobile users.

Accessibility and inclusivity

A fast website helps in making online content accessible to everyone, including those with slower internet connections or limited data plans. It ensures that users from various backgrounds and locations can easily access and navigate a website without experiencing long loading times or delays.

Overall, website speed is crucial for providing an excellent user experience, improving search engine rankings, increasing conversion rates, optimising for mobile devices, and ensuring accessibility for all users.

Mobile Optimisation

Ensuring that a website is mobile-responsive and provides a user-friendly experience on various devices, as Google considers mobile-friendliness when ranking websites.

Mobile optimisation is important for several reasons:

User experience

With the increasing usage of smartphones, a majority of internet users access websites on their mobile devices. Mobile optimisation ensures that the website is visually appealing, easy to navigate, and loads quickly on mobile devices, providing a seamless and enjoyable user experience.

Search engine rankings

Search engines like Google prioritise mobile-friendly websites in search results. Having a mobile-optimised website increases the chances of ranking higher on mobile search results, leading to increased visibility and organic traffic.

Conversion rates

A mobile-optimised website is more likely to convert visitors into customers or leads. If the website is difficult to navigate or slow to load on mobile devices, users are more likely to abandon it without taking any desired actions, such as making a purchase or filling out a contact form.

Competitive advantage

With the increasing competition in the online space, having a mobile-optimised website can give businesses a competitive edge. A well-optimised mobile website can attract more mobile users and keep them engaged, leading to increased brand awareness, customer loyalty, and revenue.


Mobile optimisation ensures that people with limited access to desktop computers or those who rely solely on mobile devices can access and interact with a website without any difficulties. It allows businesses to reach and engage with a broader audience, including those in remote areas or developing countries.

Overall, mobile optimisation is important for businesses to stay relevant, improve user experience, increase visibility, and maximise conversions in the mobile-driven digital landscape.


Making sure search engine bots can efficiently crawl and index the website’s pages. This involves addressing issues like broken links, XML sitemaps, and robots.txt files.

Crawlability is important because it determines how easily search engine bots can crawl and index a website’s content. Here are a few reasons why crawlability is important:


Search engines use crawlers to discover and index web pages. If a website is not crawlable, search engines may not be able to find and index its content, resulting in the website not appearing in search engine results pages (SERPs).


A crawlable website is more likely to be visible to search engines, which can lead to increased organic search traffic. If search engines can’t crawl a website, it will not be included in search results, severely limiting its visibility.

SEO Optimisation

Crawlability is a crucial factor for search engine optimisation (SEO). By making a website easily crawlable, website owners and SEO professionals can ensure that search engines can access and understand their content, which can help improve search rankings.

Content Discovery

Crawlability is essential for ensuring that search engines can discover all the content on a website. This includes not only the main pages but also blog posts, product pages, images, videos, and other valuable content. Without crawlability, some content may remain hidden from search engines and users.

Site Updates

Crawlability is particularly important for websites that frequently update their content. If search engines cannot crawl a website regularly, they may not be aware of the new or updated content, leading to outdated search results.

Overall, crawlability is crucial for ensuring that a website’s content is discovered, indexed, and visible in search engine results. It is an important aspect of SEO that helps drive organic search traffic and improves a website’s overall online presence.

Site Structure and Navigation

Organising content with a logical site structure and user-friendly navigation. This includes creating a clear hierarchy, optimising internal linking, and improving the user journey.

Site structure and navigation are important for several reasons:

User experience

A well-organised site structure and easy-to-use navigation help users find the information they are looking for quickly and efficiently. It improves their overall experience on the website and increases the likelihood of them staying longer, exploring more pages, and returning in the future.

Search engine optimisation (SEO)

Search engines like Google prefer websites with clear and logical structures because it makes it easier for their algorithms to crawl and index the content. A well-structured site with proper navigation can improve search engine visibility and increase the chances of ranking higher in search results.

Content organisation

A good site structure allows you to categorise and organise your content in a logical and meaningful way. It helps visitors and search engines understand the relationships between different pages and the hierarchy of information on your website.

Conversion rate optimisation

A clear site structure and navigation can guide users towards important pages or actions, such as making a purchase, signing up for a newsletter, or filling out a contact form. By making it easy for users to navigate and find what they need, you can improve conversion rates and achieve your website’s goals.

Scalability and maintenance

A well-structured site is easier to scale and maintain in the long run. As your website grows or requires updates, a clear structure makes it simpler to add new pages, categories, or functionalities without disrupting the overall user experience.

In summary, site structure and navigation are crucial for providing a positive user experience, improving search engine visibility, organising content effectively, optimising conversion rates, and simplifying website maintenance and scalability.

On-Page SEO

Optimising on-page elements such as title tags, meta descriptions, headers, and image alt attributes. Technical SEO also involves addressing duplicate content issues and improving schema markup.

On-Page SEO is important for several reasons:

Improved search engine rankings

On-Page SEO techniques help search engines to understand and index your website more effectively. This can result in higher rankings in search engine results pages (SERPs) and increased organic traffic to your site.

Enhanced user experience

On-Page SEO focuses on optimising the content, structure, and design of your website, which ultimately improves the user experience. This includes ensuring fast loading times, easy navigation, mobile-friendliness, and relevant and engaging content, all of which contribute to a positive user experience.

Increased visibility and click-through rates (CTR)

When your website appears higher in search results, it tends to get more visibility, attracting more visitors. Well-optimised page titles, meta descriptions, and URLs can also entice users to click on your website over others, increasing your click-through rates.

Better conversion rates

By optimising your website content and ensuring it is relevant and engaging, you can provide users with a better experience and encourage them to take action, such as making a purchase or filling out a form. This can lead to higher conversion rates and ultimately, increased revenue or desired actions on your site.

Competitive advantage

On-Page SEO helps you stay ahead of your competitors by ensuring your website is easily discoverable, user-friendly, and provides valuable content. By implementing effective On-Page SEO strategies, you can outrank your competitors, attract more visitors, and establish your brand as a trusted authority in your industry.

In conclusion, On-Page SEO is crucial for improving search engine rankings, enhancing user experience, increasing visibility and click-through rates, boosting conversions, and gaining a competitive advantage in the online landscape.


Implementing secure socket layer (SSL) certificates to ensure secure data transfer, which is now a ranking factor for search engines.

SSL/HTTPS (Secure Sockets Layer/Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is important because it provides a secure and encrypted connection between a user’s browser and a website’s server. Here are some reasons why SSL/HTTPS is important:

Data Security

SSL/HTTPS encrypts the data exchanged between a user’s browser and the website’s server, making it difficult for hackers or eavesdroppers to intercept and decipher the information. This helps protect sensitive data such as login credentials, credit card details, and personal information from being stolen or tampered with.


SSL/HTTPS provides authentication, ensuring that the user is connected to the intended website and not to an imposter or malicious site. This prevents phishing attacks and ensures the trustworthiness of the website.

Trust and Credibility

Websites with SSL/HTTPS display a padlock icon and “https” in the URL, indicating a secure connection. This instills trust and confidence in users, as they know their information is safe and that the website takes security seriously. SSL/HTTPS is especially crucial for e-commerce websites, where customers need to trust the site with their financial information.

SEO Benefits

Search engines like Google prioritise websites with SSL/HTTPS in their search rankings. Having HTTPS can lead to improved visibility and higher rankings, giving websites an advantage over those without it.

Regulatory Compliance

Many industries have regulatory requirements that mandate the use of SSL/HTTPS to protect user data. For example, the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requires secure connections for online transactions.

Overall, SSL/HTTPS is important for safeguarding data, establishing trust, complying with regulations, and ensuring a secure online experience for users.


Setting canonical tags to address duplicate content issues and prevent indexing of undesirable versions of pages.

Canonicalisation, also known as canonical tagging or canonisation, is an essential concept in search engine optimisation (SEO). It refers to the process of selecting and defining a preferred version of a webpage’s URL when there are multiple URLs that lead to the same content.

The importance of canonicalisation for SEO lies in the fact that search engines consider duplicate content as a potential issue. When multiple URLs display the same or highly similar content, search engines might have difficulty determining which version to include or exclude from their search index. This can lead to several negative consequences such as diluted search rankings, wasted crawling resources, and potentially lower visibility in search results.

By implementing canonicalisation, website owners can indicate to search engines the preferred version of a URL, consolidating the ranking signals for that specific content. This helps search engines understand which version should be indexed and displayed in search results, avoiding the negative impact of duplicate content.

Canonicalisation can be implemented in a few ways, most commonly through the use of canonical tags within the HTML code of a webpage. These tags inform search engines about the preferred URL for a particular content. Additionally, it is recommended to consistently use the chosen preferred URL in internal linking and external linking efforts to reinforce the canonical signal.

Overall, canonicalisation is crucial for SEO to consolidate the ranking signals of duplicate content and ensure that search engines understand the preferred version of a webpage. It helps to avoid potential negative consequences and maintain a strong online presence.

Structured Data Markup

Structured data markup, also known as schema markup or rich snippets, is a code added to a website’s HTML that helps search engines understand the content on the page better. It provides additional context and information about the page’s content, making it easier for search engines to categorise and display the information in search results.

Structured data markup is important for SEO because it enhances the visibility and presentation of the website’s content in search engine result pages (SERPs). By implementing structured data markup, website owners can provide search engines with more detailed information about their content, such as product details, ratings, prices, event dates, etc. This helps search engines display rich snippets or enhanced search results, making the website stand out among competitors and potentially attracting more clicks from users.

Moreover, structured data markup also helps search engines better understand the website’s content and context, which can lead to improved rankings and organic traffic. It provides a way to communicate with search engines in a language they understand, making it easier for them to interpret and index the site’s content accurately.

Overall, using structured data markup is important for SEO as it improves the visibility, presentation, and relevance of a website’s content in search results, ultimately leading to increased organic traffic and potentially higher rankings.

Website Security

Website security refers to the measures taken to protect a website and its data from unauthorised access, hacking, malware, and other malicious activities. It involves implementing various security protocols, software, and practices to ensure the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of a website.

Website security is crucial for SEO (Search Engine Optimisation) for several reasons:

User Trust

A secure website builds trust with users. When visitors perceive a website as safe, they are more likely to engage with its content, make purchases, and share personal information. This leads to increased user satisfaction, longer visit durations, lower bounce rates, and higher conversions, all of which positively impact SEO rankings.

SEO Ranking Factors

Search engines like Google prioritise user experience and website security is one of the factors they consider. Websites with SSL certificates (HTTPS) are given preference in search rankings over those without. A secure website is more likely to rank higher in search results, driving more organic traffic and improving overall SEO performance.

Protection from Malicious Activities

Cyberattacks can harm a website’s SEO performance. Hackers can inject malicious code, steal sensitive information, or create spammy content that negatively affects search engine rankings. Implementing robust website security measures helps prevent such attacks, safeguarding a website’s SEO rankings.

Avoiding Blacklisting

If a website is compromised by malware or malicious activities, search engines may flag it as unsafe and blacklist it from search results. Being blacklisted can severely impact organic traffic, user trust, and overall SEO performance. Regular security audits and implementing necessary security measures help avoid such penalties.

In summary, website security is important for SEO as it enhances user trust, improves SEO ranking factors, prevents malicious activities, and avoids being blacklisted by search engines.

XML Sitemaps

XML Sitemaps are files that provide search engines with information about the pages on a website that they can crawl and index. It is essentially a list of URLs on a website that helps search engines to understand the website’s structure and easily discover new or updated pages.

XML Sitemaps are important for SEO because they help search engines to navigate and understand a website’s content more efficiently. By providing a XML Sitemap, website owners can ensure that search engines have access to all relevant pages, including those that may be difficult to find through traditional crawling methods such as internal linking. This can help in indexing more pages and improving overall visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs).

Additionally, XML Sitemaps can include additional metadata about each page like the last modified date, importance of the page, or the frequency of changes. This information helps search engines prioritise crawling and indexing, giving more importance to the most important and frequently updated pages.

Overall, XML Sitemaps play a crucial role in ensuring that search engines can effectively crawl, index, and rank a website’s pages, which can significantly impact its visibility and organic search performance.

International SEO

Hreflang is an HTML attribute used to indicate the language and regional targeting of a webpage. It is important for SEO (Search Engine Optimisation) because it helps search engines understand the intended audience for a particular webpage.

Here are a few reasons why hreflang is important for SEO:

Language Targeting

Hreflang allows webmasters to specify the language of a webpage, helping search engines display the correct version to users based on their language preferences.

Regional Targeting

Hreflang also allows webmasters to specify the regional targeting of a webpage. This is beneficial for websites with multiple regional versions or those targeting specific countries or regions.

Reduces Duplicate Content Issues

When a website has multiple versions of the same content in different languages, search engines may consider it as duplicate content. Hreflang helps search engines understand that these are alternate versions intended for different language audiences, reducing the risk of penalties for duplicate content.

Improves User Experience

By directing users to the most relevant version of a webpage, hreflang improves the user experience. Visitors are more likely to engage with content that is in their preferred language or targeted to their region.

Increases Visibility and Rankings

Targeting specific languages and regions with hreflang can help websites rank higher in relevant search results. It can improve visibility and attract more targeted organic traffic to a website.

Overall, using hreflang correctly can help search engines understand the language and regional targeting of a webpage, improving its visibility, relevance, and user experience, thus positively impacting SEO efforts.

Server and Hosting Optimisation

Server and hosting optimisation refers to the process of fine-tuning and optimising the performance of the server and hosting infrastructure that a website is hosted on. It involves various techniques and strategies to ensure that the server and hosting environment are running efficiently and providing optimal speed, uptime, and reliability for the website.

Server and hosting optimisation is crucial for SEO (Search Engine Optimisation) because search engines, like Google, consider website speed and performance as important ranking factors. A slow-loading website can result in a poor user experience, leading to lower search engine rankings. Additionally, search engines also favor websites that have good uptime and reliability.

By optimising the server and hosting environment, website owners can improve their website’s speed, reduce downtime, and enhance overall performance. This, in turn, can lead to improved search engine rankings and visibility, as well as better user engagement and conversion rates.

Some common techniques used in server and hosting optimisation include:


Implementing caching mechanisms to store static website content, reducing the need for repeated server requests and improving load times.

Content Delivery Network (CDN)

Utilising a CDN to distribute website content across multiple servers located in various geographical locations, reducing latency and improving load times.


Enabling compression techniques like GsIP to reduce the sise of files transmitted between the server and the user’s browser, resulting in faster load times.


Minifying HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files by removing unnecessary characters and code, reducing file sises and improving load times.

Server Monitoring

Regularly monitoring the server’s performance, uptime, and resource usage to identify and address any issues that may affect website performance.

Overall, server and hosting optimisation plays a significant role in SEO by improving website speed, performance, and reliability, which are crucial factors in search engine rankings and user experience.

Technical SEO is an essential component of overall SEO strategy, as it lays the foundation for search engines to access, understand, and rank your website’s content effectively. Addressing technical issues can result in improved rankings, user experience, and site performance.


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